Maslovskii S., Tsvetkov A. Gender self-regulation pecularities in persons with different relegiosity levels
Director, Higher school of psychology and business
doctor of Psychology, Deputy Director for science,
Center of neuropsychology » Izyuminka «
Abstract: it is shown that at all levels of religiosity men have higher levels than women or in certain aspects of self-regulation, or at general value. There’s nj dominance of women in any parameter of regulation, at any assessed religiosity levels. Moreover, this difference is most significant in non-believers and deeply religious respondents groups. These results are interpreted by the authors as the influence of gender stereotypes that dictate women to turn to religious rituals as a source of «peace» and stability of personality in crisis situations.
Keywords: religiosity, self-control, gender.
Religion is a form of social consciousness (or social life), used by social groups and individuals to communicate or at least attempt to communicate with reality, but not the everyday one, wich lies beyond practical experience.
At all times, the religious men and women were separatedly considered as two complementary roles . Men’s religiosity is dramatically different from women, usually manifesting as deep self knowledge and awareness about surrounding world. Men’s gender role requires religiosity be non-disturbing to their regular work, to explore the world, to build and create. Men’s religiosity is active.
So it was assumed that woman should preserve purity of the soul and body, while man – clarity of mind and sobriety of perception.
Today, there are already some scientific evidence on the relationship between personal characteristics and religiosity. Thus, in I.F. Myagkov, Yu.V. Shcherbatykh and M.S. Kravtsova study was revealed that there is no correlation between the general level of religiosity of the individual and personality factors in R.B.Cattell questionnaire . However, these authors have shown a relative correlation between the degree of religiosity and level of frustration.
There are studies of religiosity counting the psychological peculiarities of different age periods. So far, N. Usova and A. Karpovoy revealed that the middle-aged (from 30 to 40 years) in contrast to younger respondents (up to 18 years) expressed more faith in God and his power, largely expressed moral religious component, external religious activity (rituals) and religious identity . Plus, general level of religiosity is higher in average age. In advanced age (over 60 years) these indicators are somewhere in the middle between mature and youthful subjects. N. Usov and A. Kashapova attribute this to the different degree of individuals’ involvement in social processes due to his age.
Thus, qualitative indicators of religiosity are much more connected with personality traits than quantitative.
All study of personality self-regulation approaches can be roughly placed within a continuum of «personality–activity» . At the extreme poles would be concepts that consider personal regulation outside of the activity context, as self-development work to change values and attitudes, and concepts that represent only operational approach to executive functions that ignore individual specificity in their implementation .
In this work we will adhere to the operational approach in the framework of the model of self-regulation by Varvara I. Morosanova understanding self-regulation as complete system of goals extension and their achievement management.
In this article authors aim to study not only the gender characteristics of self-regulation, but also the pecularities in self-regulation of individuals with different levels of religiosity.
The study involved 58 respondents, whose average age was 30.7±10,1. This sample included 2 groups: 1) 16 men, aged 26±4,5; 2) 39 women in the age of 32.6±11,1.
Methods of the study: 1) questionnaire to identify the degree of religiosity. Respondents are encouraged to answer the question, whether they consider themselves belonging to one of the traditional religions, based on a set of options: 1. No; 2. Yes, but not observing religious rituals (e.g. fasting, prayer before meals, etc.) on a daily basis; 3. Yes, and observe the rituals on a daily basis. It was also necessary to assess the degree of religiosity, noting on the visual scale graded from 1 to 7 points.
2) Varvara I. Morosanova SSP-98 questionnaire, diagnosing the stylistic feachures of goals setting and achieving. It consists of 46 poinys comprising six scales, allocated in accordance with the basic regulatory processes (planning, modeling, programming, evaluation) and regulator-personality properties (flexibility and autonomy). Each scale consists of nine statements. Some allegations are included in two scales according to their attribution both characterize regulatory process and the personal properties of regulation.
Results. It was revealed at the mean group performance, that levels of planning, autonomy and overall self-regulation level are higher in the non-Christian respondents. Levels of modelling and results assessment are higher in moderately religious respondents, and flexibility value – in highly religious. On the basis of average indicators, can be assumed that non-religious respondents have a greater need of activities conscious planning, with better manifested autonomy, they respond flexibly and adequately to changing conditions. At moderate religiosity persons have abilities to allocate significant conditions for targets achievement, both in the current situation and future ones better than other, but also they have stable subjective criteria for results evaluating. Religious respondents, performing rituals, show their best in all regulatory processes plasticity.
However, if we consider the results according to gender, it can be seen that the faithless men have higher level only in planning, the moderately religious have a bit more developed results evaluation, and the believers demonstrate best developed modelling, programming and flexibility.
Women group shows that faithless females have a higher level of autonomy, moderately religious – best developed modeling, programming, results assesment, and the overall self-regulation level, and faithful are best in flexibility.
A statistic comparison between men and women with use of Mann-Whitney test showed that in unbelieving sample men were significantly higher (p<0.05) in levels of planning, modeling, programming and general level of self-regulation. In moderate believers group we discovered that men show better in results evaluation (p<0.05), and deeply religious men have significantly higher levels of modeling, autonomy and overall level of self-regulation than women.
Thus, it is revealed that the level of development of self-regulation is higher for men than women, especially when it comes to non-religious or deeply religious respondents. In the group of moderate believing respondents differences were observed only at assessment results level, which indicates that men are better in formation and stability of subjective criteria.
So it was found that with increasing levels of religiosity level of self-regulation will decline but this trend is observed only in women, showing gender stereotypes determined appeal to rituals as source of personality stability in crisis situations.
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